4. Plural formation

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In spanish, nouns can appear in singular (s) or plural (p) form. Till now, in every example we have seen every noun was singular, now let's see how the plural is formed.

General rule:

Nouns finishing in vowel form their plural adding "s".

(s)
(p)
 
Example
el abogado
los abogados
the lawyer, the lawyers
el coche
los coches
the car, the cars
el zapato
los zapatos
the shoe, the shoes
la casa
las casas
the house, the houses
la mesa
las mesas
the table, the tables
la silla
las sillas
the chair, the chairs

Nouns finishing in consonant form their plural adding "es".

(s)
(p)
 
Example
el avión
los aviones
the plane, the planes
el ordenador
los ordenadores
the computer, the computers
el jugador
los jugadores
the player, the players
la universidad
las universidades
the university, the univesities
la nación
las naciones
the nation, the nations
la ciudad
las ciudades
the city, the cities

Exceptions:

Of course forming the plural there are lot of exceptions, but here I'll write the basic ones, the other complex rules will appear in the "professional" level.

- Nouns finishing in "z" form their plural removing the "z" and adding "ces".

(s)
(p)
 
Example
la emperatriz
las emperatrices
the empress, the empresses
el lápiz
los lápices
the pencil, the pencils

-Muchos sustantivos que terminan en "s" o "x" mantienen su forma en el plural.

(s)
(p)
 
Example
la crisis
las crisis
the crisis
el ciempiés
los ciempiés
the centipede, the centipedes
el tórax
los tórax
the chest

-Las palabras compuestas mantienen su forma en el plural.

(s)
(p)
 
Example
el paraguas
los paraguas
the umbrella, the umbrellas
el abrelatas
los abrelatas
the can opener, the can openers

Note 1:

Some nouns for ofjects made of symetrical parts are used only in the plural form. For example: "los pantalones" (trousers), "las gafas" (glasses), "las tijeras" (scissors)...

Note 2:

When we have a set os masculine and feminin elements, the masculine plural is used to define them. For example:

2 profesores (m) y 2 profesoras (f), en total tenemos 4 profesores (m).

2 male teachers and 2 female teachers, in total we have 4 teachers.

godfather = padrino

science = ciencia